Ryan Guldberg likes to test things out. Whether it’s segmenting a welcome series based on information received from a preference form, testing a promotion with a cart recovery email or even A/B testing subject lines, he takes a data-driven approach to his job as director of ecommerce marketing at I See Me!, a personalized books and gifts retailer.
With his previous email platform, however, testing wasn’t that simple. “Everything was such a big job, and we had to pay to make any changes,’’ Guldberg says. But with Bronto, Guldberg is testing, tweaking and optimizing on his own with big results. The company’s cart recovery program converts at a rate 165% higher than promotional emails; the browse recovery campaign has delivered three times the investment; and the welcome series is converting at a rate 28% higher than the series it ran with the previous email provider.
Levi Masterson is a web developer, but he’s happy he hasn’t had to rely on that skill to get his emailing marketing program in revenue-driving mode.
Masterson works for The Duck Store, the University of Oregon’s bookstore. The retailer uses Bronto together with NetSuite’s SuiteCommerce Advanced to streamline its online commerce process. The results in just one year include a 200% increase in holiday sales, a cart recovery program delivering eight times the revenue of promotional blasts and a subscriber list that has nearly doubled in size.
The Duck Store has 12 stores and online sales, devotes a portion of revenue to alumni activities and includes faculty, students and staff on its board of directors. With a variety of stakeholders, it needed a flexible email platform that makes it easy to segment subscriber lists and build interest in its products.
“The benefits of using Bronto with NetSuite are worth the investment. All your data is synced, and you have such granular insight into your messages – not just from an operational standpoint, but from a strategic one as well.”
Web Developer, The Duck Store
Holiday sales increased 200% in the first year with Bronto.
How do you encourage the online and brick-and-mortar portions of your business to work in harmony? By building an email program that encourages both online and in-store purchasing.
Salt Lake City-based Sportsman’s Warehouse is doing just that with a multichannel approach that is driving revenue, boosting attendance at in-store events and helping the retailer develop more valuable relationships with vendors.
Ecommerce Marketing Manager Colby Saenz runs the email program with an eye toward giving shoppers a reason to visit the 87 Sportsman’s Warehouse stores in 22 states. The retailer focuses on supplies for hunting, shooting, camping and fishing. One of Saenz’s big initiatives this past year has been highlighting ship-to-store option in emails and on the website. “Fifty-six percent of our online orders are ship to store, a 25% increase over last year,” Saenz says. “The importance of ship-to-store feature is that it brings customers to the
Entertainment Magpie provides its 4 million customers with a fast and easy way to trade in their media and tech for cash. The refurbished goods are then sold through channels such as eBay, Amazon and the company’s own dedicated apps and websites. The company goes by the name musicMagpie in the UK and Decluttr in the US.
Email is one of the company’s core marketing channels and its primary method of communicating with customers. “We have several large databases of customers across our brands which means we have fantastic reach for our campaigns and are able to drive significant traffic to our sites,” says CRM manager Jason Peters.
As the company offers different platforms for customers to buy and trade items, the main goal was to integrate data to get a holistic customer view and identify its best customers. “The ability to target the right customer
“Bronto’s fantastic customisation has given us the freedom to build an approach that suits our business. Email-generated revenue increased by 201% YOY for our UK site and conversions are 113% higher for our US site.”
CRM Manager, Entertainment Magpie
201% increase in email-generated revenue YOY on musicMagpie.
As a football fan, TTI’s Digital Marketing Manager James Brown likes to think of his email marketing strategy as a set of plays. But with his previous provider, he kept getting blocked. With Bronto, Brown has a tool that helps him orchestrate a winning strategy. Email-generated revenue has more than doubled year-over-year since TTI made the switch.
TTI is the floor care company behind the brands Dirt Devil, Hoover and Oreck. Brown is responsible for the email marketing strategy for each brand, which includes managing workflows, creating the designs and setting up campaigns. While he gets help from a team, he needed a product that was easier to use.
“When I started with Bronto, it was like night and day,” he said. “With our previous provider, we had limited flexibility in crafting campaigns and designing emails.” Brown says he can work with the digital marketing, ecommerce and brand groups to develop distinctly
ELOQUII is a trailblazer in producing fast fashion designed exclusively in plus sizes. Instead of sizing up clothing patterned for straight-sized women, ELOQUII fits their original designs to sizes 14+, ensuring the perfect fit on runway-inspired designs.
The $18 billion market for plus-size apparel is woefully underserved, but ELOQUII wins customer praise and mentions in fashion magazines for tackling this niche. And it does it all (or most of it) via ecommerce, using email to help educate and retain customers and SMS to encourage their most trend-conscious followers to buy hot items before they sell out.
This two-pronged approach has kept Kelsey Foy, Director of Retention Marketing, busy. But she says Bronto lets her work efficiently, allowing her to manage a complex multi-faceted marketing program with help from just one other person.
VetShopAustralia has gained a loyal following with its delightful surfing dog contest. It’s turned that event into revenue with an email approach that focuses on personalisation and triggered messages – with great success. Director Steve Perissinotto attributes 10% of the rapidly growing company’s revenue to Bronto.
Perissinotto works in a kind of pet-lover’s paradise. The company, founded by his veterinarian brother, has “bring your dog to work day” every day, and cats can come “by appointment.” There are pet bereavement and sick leave policies, and pets is a broadly applied category. “We even had a pig in one day. I didn’t even know we had a team member with a pet pig,” Perissinotto says.
He didn’t know about the pet pig, but he did know that before using Bronto he had no way to connect with customers in a more personalised way. “We were delivering ‘batch-and-blast’ one-off emails that couldn’t
Only the coolest, most fun gadgets and games are sold by the Swedish online retailer Coolstuff through its six local websites in the Nordics, Germany, UK and to the rest of the world.
The website was creative and fun – but the email communication was in need of an update. “When I joined Coolstuff, the email service provider was pretty basic with limited design features and no segmentation or automation capabilities,” says online CRM manager Yelena Starikova.
“One of my first jobs was to find a new ESP,” Starikova says. “Together with our CRM consultant, we spoke to around 10 companies and felt that Bronto was the perfect fit. It was ecommerce focused, promised easy and fast implementation and I was really impressed with the automation features,” she says.
Coolstuff signed with Bronto in September and needed
At luxury furniture, home accessories and gifts retailer OKA, email personalisation is key to better engaging its customers. “We want to deliver a tailored shopping experience to customers to ensure we are displaying what they want to see rather than what we want to show them,” says OKA’s email marketing executive Andrew Lothian.
The retailer’s collaboration with Bronto, and a new focus on exploiting the benefits of the platform, is enabling it to do just that with more targeted, relevant emails delivering real business results.
OKA was founded in 1999 as a direct mail order interiors company but has since grown into a successful multichannel retailer that now includes 14 stores across the UK as well as the company’s online business. Web sales were 30% of total company sales in 2016 with email generating 19% of last click web revenue. With a new focus on driving conversion via email that figure is
Gaining insight into what customers are looking for is critical to IWA Wine Accessories (IWA) President Ben Argov. His company sells everything from corkscrews to custom wine cellars, and email helps keep customers engaged in a cost-effective way.
Since IWA started working with Bronto, the company has netted eight times the revenue attributed to email compared to its previous provider. The reason rests in the ability to personalize the messages with tactics, such as browse and cart recovery, and sync the information with catalog and call center data. IWA is starting to better understand when a corkscrew customer is a potential wine cellar buyer.
“Even the simplest marketing techniques are made easier in Bronto,” says Argov, who ran into multiple problems with a previous commerce automation provider, ranging from difficulty sending automated cart abandonment messages to deliverability issues.
Lulus’ marketers understand that fast-fashion customers have short attention spans. An enticing Instagram pic or an appealing ad on a YouTube channel could send their target customer off to a competitor’s brand.
So how to gain some shopper stickiness? Craft a compelling Black Friday VIP campaign to dramatically up the number of email subscribers and keep them coming back – and buying – through an email-based loyalty campaign. The VIP campaign helped Lulus more than double its subscriber list over Black Friday. And with that healthy subscriber list, Lulus ecommerce marketing team is using Bronto to run its loyalty campaign. “Bronto has been a great solution for customer retention and reengagements,” says Noelle Sadler, Vice President of Marketing.
VIP campaigns can be kind of gimmicky, but Lulus made it anything but. “We started our Black Friday VIP campaign a few years ago as a pure marketing play.
REEDS Jewelers was like a lot of other omnichannel merchants six years ago. The company had a web storefront and an email program, and it dabbled in social media to boost its email subscriber list. But the company didn’t think it was maximizing the email sales channel.
REEDS Director of Multichannel Sales Mark deCausmeaker thought he’d give Bronto a try. He liked Bronto’s capabilities and the option to buy strategy and consulting services as needed. Six years later, the results are striking: a 20x increase in email-driven revenue and a program to not only drive online sales but lift sales at its more than 60 brick-and-mortar stores as well.
The use of consulting services early in its email marketing journey gave REEDS the guidance to create many segmented lifecycle and triggered campaigns, and encourage the migration to responsive design. “Every time we purchased services, we had a specific
Tarte Cosmetics takes a nimble approach to marketing its natural, trendy makeup. Strong buzz on social around an eye color palette? Tarte’s Digital Marketing Director Stephanie Urban will work it into an email.
It’s important for Urban that she can quickly segment and build triggered campaigns to capture the most relevant audience for each message. “We were on an older platform that was pretty antiquated and made it difficult to manage segments. Now within Bronto, I can manage workflows and campaigns more seamlessly.”
And it’s having quite an impact: “In the past year, our email channel has grown over 200%. We’ve seen significant lifts in engagement, traffic and revenue,” Urban says.
Tarte is having success with a triggered welcome series and birthday campaign. Segmented emails also pump up the revenue. “Even if we are having a site-wide sale, we might send a shopper an email about mascara
As the social media manager for the wildly popular Australian home renovation reality show “The Block,” Emma Garland was flooded with requests from the public asking where they could buy the rugs, furniture and light fixtures that contestants selected for their projects. Thus, The Block Shop – an online commerce website – was born.
But because the shows that inspire the site’s products are not shown year-round, Garland and her husband Nick knew they needed a way to engage with customers who weren’t visiting the site in between seasons. Email seemed the logical tool, but the small company’s first provider didn’t make it easy for them to add the product feed or automate messages. “I wanted the product and its price to appear in the marketing message,” says Garland, the company director. “We couldn’t do that with our old provider.”
Briana Mitchell can attest to the misery of an unreliable pop-up. “We used one that wasn’t firing quickly enough, and potential subscribers couldn’t tell if there was a promotion attached to it” says Mitchell, email & copywriting marketing manager at francesca’s.
Then francesca’s adopted Bronto’s Pop-Up Manager and customized a new pop-up. “We’ve had it live for two months, and we’ve acquired more new contacts than the prior form had given us in the past year.” Better yet, Mitchell can adjust the pop-up whenever she wants. “We just update the graphics to fit the season and the incentive we want to offer at any given time. And we can do testing with the incentive, something we couldn’t do before.”
Having a solid pop-up is just one reason Mitchell likes working with Bronto. Flexibility and reporting help francesca’s drive revenue and engage customers, whether they shop online or visit one of the merchant’s
The cloth nappy market has moved from niche to mainstream in recent years as the desire to save money and be more environmentally friendly has led new parents to choose cloth nappies over disposables.
When Bambino Mio started in 1997, only 2% of parents opted for reusable nappies. Today, nearly one-third of UK parents use them. “Eco-friendly millennial parents are driving the reusable nappy surge,” says Joreen Singh, marketing manager for Bambino Mio.
“The market is growing, and the demand for our product is growing. Since the recession, sales have steadily increased year-on-year because this is the type of product that saves customers money. It’s also the type of product that makes you feel good about using it with your baby,” Singh says. The brand sells both internationally and through major retailers in the UK, its biggest market.
Until recently, email was just a small part of the company’s growth strategy. “It was fine at the time, as we were just dipping our toe in the water. The nursery
When skincare brand Paula’s Choice Europe drew up a new email marketing plan, there was one major stumbling block. The company’s email service provider didn’t have the functionality Retention Manager Leonie Jonker needed to execute the plan. She couldn’t import order history, build segments, create triggered messages or do anything automated. “It was a lot of work, and I couldn’t do much more capacity-wise,” Jonker says.
Within five weeks of switching to Bronto, Paula’s Choice Europe was sending customers personalised messages that have helped increase email revenue. “For an email marketer, it’s like being a kid in a candy store,” Jonker says.
The skincare company was launched in the US, and that division was already using Bronto. A further incentive to switch to Bronto’s commerce marketing automation platform is that it integrates well with the ecommerce platform Paula’s Choice Europe was using. “They were
UK Flooring Direct built a successful online flooring business by sending samples and promptly following up with attentive customer service, but it was struggling to integrate email as a cost-effective nurture tool to stay in touch with customers.
“All we could do was batch and blast,” explains Josh Ashby, UK Flooring’s commerce director. So Ashby chose to upgrade with Bronto, and the results were immediate. Email revenue rose 159% in the first full calendar year, and the percent of email-generated revenue has almost doubled from 6.5% to 11.4%. The company is making progress in using email to build a more personalised customer experience.
Launched in 2004, UK Flooring outgrew its bespoke commerce platform and eventually switched to NetSuite’s SuiteCommerce Advanced. In the first full year on the platform, company revenue grew 45%. Ashby said he was already interested in Bronto’s richer functionality, so when NetSuite acquired Bronto, it made perfect sense to move. The connection between
The Global Director of Brand and Ecommerce for EMU Australia was considering adding cart recovery emails to the footwear company’s ecommerce toolset. “You know how you read case studies and they’re positive, but you don’t really believe it until you see it yourself?” asked Meehan. But two years later, she is sold. Bronto’s Cart Recovery app has delivered a monthly average as high as $17 per email in revenue. “We saw instant success in terms of revenue generation. It’s so simple, yet so effective.”
Cart recovery is just one approach that EMU Australia is taking as it expands its direct-to-consumer digital footprint. Originally a manufacturer and wholesaler, the company’s origins are rooted in the Australian coastal region famous for its surf breaks where it still handcrafts sheepskin boots that are now sold in more than 70 countries around the world.
“Bronto’s just a really user-friendly platform that offers
Value retailers like Poundland have rapid product turnover, so keeping customers informed about new items and promotions is very important. But with its old email provider, Poundland couldn’t react quickly enough. Email marketing was labour-intensive and distracting.
“Before Bronto, we were doing too much manual work,” says Paul McDermott, Head of Ecommerce. “We used a proprietary CMS for the website with no automation, so we spent too much time moving data between our ESP and the website. Almost everything we wanted to do with our email programme involved lots of manual effort.”
When it chose Magento for an ecommerce platform and launched its new website, Poundland decided to revisit its email strategy. Automation was critical, as was an email platform that would integrate seamlessly with Magento. “Our development is external, so the integration had to be fast and simple with a good level of support,” McDermott says.
The designer and marketer of innovative products for parents and children deployed their ecommerce website and email program with the knowledge that they needed to balance their direct to consumer strategy with their already established retailer business.
Munchkin’s marketing team worked to find the right role for Munchkin.com within the shopping journey of the customer. The result was an email program that engages customers, shares useful content and doesn’t compete with retailers who carry their products.
“We want to inform customers about our products and our brand. We are happy regardless of whether they go shop at a retailer or on munchkin.com. Our aim is to introduce and educate consumers on what makes Munchkin products innovative and unique,” says Laura Bradford, ecommerce manager. Nonetheless, the new approach has been very successful. “Our ecommerce is growing by leaps and bounds.”
In the dead of a Utah winter, Matt Grimm crafted an email message with the subject line “Dreaming of summer.” It seemed the perfect pitch for an outdoor furniture company, until a customer from Miami wrote back to point out the obvious: Some recipients were in the midst of their mildest time of the year.
As ecommerce manager for RST Brands, Grimm knew that pockets of the country buy outdoor furniture in January, but creating geo-targeted emails was just too much of a hassle with his old provider.
With Bronto, that’s changed. Grimm can quickly segment lists and create targeted messages. “We can really understand who our customer is,” says Grimm. “We can see patterns, understand who hasn’t purchased from us and figure out how to convert them into customers.”
RST Brands began in wholesaling. The company didn’t start selling directly to the consumer – outside of replacement parts – until 2011, when it decided to
Marketing engagement rings online might seem a bit of a tough sell, but when you’ve differentiated your jewelry with unique designs from sustainable, conflict-free sources, it gives you an edge.
Once you’ve sold the ring, though, how do you turn those socially-conscious, newly-engaged couples into lifetime customers? For Brilliant Earth, personalization made all the difference.
Since transitioning to Bronto, email volume for the San Francisco-based company has grown more than 850%, transactions are up more than 440% and “our email-generated revenue has shot up more than 575%,’’ says Kristina Simonsen, marketing manager.
Brilliant Earth was born of a quandary. When co-founder Beth Gerstein was about to be engaged, she and her fiancé, Alex, had a tough time finding a conflict-free engagement ring that reflected their values. Gerstein’s Stanford University classmate, Eric
To any commerce marketer who is hesitant to employ triggered messages, consider Everlast’s experience.
The boxing, martial arts and fitness brand created one simple welcome series that accounts for 2.3% of email sends – but it delivers 38% of total email revenue.
“It’s a huge revenue converter,’’ says Everlast’s Ecommerce Manager Danit Zmora. The first message in the series has an average 23.4% conversion rate, a success that encouraged her to explore more triggered messages, including a post-purchase series.
Triggered campaigns are a big reason their email revenue has grown by 356% in the past year.
Before Everlast could succeed with triggered messages, it needed a few things: an inviting website, an engaged list of email subscribers, and solid reporting to help Zmora understand if her messages were working. Everlast chose Blue Acorn for the website work and
Bruce Cabral learned long ago that his company’s marketing emails need to feature products. The click-through and conversion rates are much higher when he highlights items. But featuring just one or two products isn’t enough. An email with upwards of 16 suggestions delivers the best results.
The difficult part is selecting what to feature without inadvertently including out-of-stock items – especially since the emails are created 30 days before they’re sent. “It was time-consuming to select products,” says Cabral, President, Sinclair Institute, a subsidiary of PHE, Inc., the multi-channel retailer behind the brands Adam & Eve, Adam Male, BetterSex and the Sinclair Institute. “Customers love to see the products and we love to pique their interest.” Cabral is responsible for sales and ecommerce marketing for several of the brands, which offer sexual health and wellness products, as well as adult novelties to other retailers and direct to consumers.
People don’t buy prescription glasses that often. So it wouldn’t seem to make much sense to send daily or weekly emails to every last person on your list. But that’s just what GlassesUSA.com did when it started in ecommerce.
“In the beginning, it was hard to accept the idea that sending fewer emails could actually drive higher revenue,” says Brett Rudolph, Director, Email Marketing for GlassesUSA.com, a pure online prescription glasses store that recently ranked third in the list of Top 50 Email Marketers by Internet Retailer.
But with a segmented and personalized approach, the company has significantly increased the percent of revenue coming from email without increasing the number of emails subscribers receive. “The first time we sent an email to a list segmented to include only those with a high open rate, we thought, ‘OK, we’ll probably lose a bunch of money,’
When she joined women’s retailer JOHNNY WAS more than 2 1/2 years ago, Frederique Meijer knew a lot about retail, but she didn’t know much about ecommerce. She had to learn quickly.
At that time, the retailer had only a handful of company stores showcasing its vintage-inspired clothing. Email was its highest single revenue-producing channel, but the approach was crude: send a daily email to everyone on the list.
The company had switched to Bronto when Meijer arrived. “I just jumped in and taught myself.” She’s not only seen solid results, but has gradually convinced the marketing organization that less (email, that is) can actually produce more revenue. “We’ve shown that you can maintain, even increase, revenue without sending a daily message to everyone on the list.”
Two years later, email is the greatest generator of traffic and sales to the 25-year-old Los Angeles- based company’s website.
When Ujjwal Dhoot joined FSAstore.com as Chief Marketing Officer, he took a quick inventory of what was working and what wasn’t. FSAstore.com is an online retailer of healthcare products that can be purchased through a tax-free flexible spending account.
Well-versed in the functionality of email service providers (he’d worked with five), Dhoot quickly put Bronto in the bucket of solutions that worked. “Two things stand out about Bronto – the workflows and the ability to upload data.”
That functionality was critical because Dhoot’s plan was to segment and personalize all of FSAstore.com’s emails to drive revenue. Rather than blasting bulk emails, Dhoot wanted to send email messages that resonate with shoppers – a timely reminder to reorder a product, an alert that their FSA dollars are about to expire, a friendly message to re-engage a buyer who hasn’t shopped in a while.
The result: Today, 40% of email revenue comes from
Holidays that usually feature gift giving – such as Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day and Father’s Day – are, not surprisingly, of “massive” importance to a retailer like NOTHS.
In the past, NOTHS had taken a pretty basic approach to those critical occasions.
Antony recalled the retailer’s January sale, before he had gotten up to speed with what he could do with Bronto and its tools.
NOTHS’s recent summer sale was a very different story. They were able to fine-tune the customer journey, thanks to information previously gathered in its welcome series, as well as during the Valentine’s Day, Father’s Day and Mother’s Day sales.
Workflows once again figured prominently, but NOTHS was also able to look at past-purchase data and then segment its customers into different groups, by average customer value. Which group a customer belonged to
“We literally can turn stuff around within the hour. It gives us an extra day in which we can still send emails leading up to an occasion. An extra day in which we can still generate revenue is a great thing for us.”
In some ways, Oak Furniture Land is a multi-channel retailer story told in reverse.
Company founder Jason Bannister started by selling furniture on eBay in 2004 and then launched a website, before eventually opening up OFL’s first brick-and-mortar showroom in 2009. From that first opening – in office space at an airfield in Kemble, Gloucestershire – OFL has expanded to 62 stores throughout the UK.
While OFL’s foundation was built on e-commerce, they know the value that comes with having a physical store location.
“Once you’re in the showroom you can touch and feel the product, you can really see the quality,” said Sophia Greenslade, CRM Manager for Oak Furniture Land.
And OFL also knows the importance of setting up your marketing so that the brick-and-mortar and online complement – rather than compete with – each other. Bronto has been helping OFL with that symbiotic
Boot Barn and Bronto have really hit their stride. Within a nine-month period, Boot Barn produced 34% more email-generated revenue than it did in the 12 months before signing with Bronto.
Now Boot Barn is ready to kick things up a notch with the help of the Bronto integration for the Demandware Commerce Cloud.
This new integration, called the Demandware Connector, was developed in-house by a dedicated team of Bronto engineers. This makes for a quicker, more reliable customer service and support experience and will allow for fast, ongoing enhancements. No third party is involved; enhancements are made directly and questions are answered immediately.
It also means the Demandware Connector delivers the same easy, intuitive user experience that the Bronto Marketing Platform (BMP) has always provided. All connector interactions happen within the BMP. When
Farmison & Co is a gourmet food delivery service that deals exclusively with the highest quality and variety of English meats and cheeses. Founders John Pallagi and Lee Simmonds know their audience well.
“Our customers don’t just want to pop down to a regular shop for an important meal, they want something truly special. Something that stands out.”
The catalog of products speaks for itself. E-Commerce food companies are discovering that consumers want efficient ways to find what they need, but they don’t want to give up the uniqueness that can be found in a rural farmers’ market. Sitting at the intersection of these two consumer desires, Farmison & Co is poised for success.
“We know we have an audience who buys very seasonally. Christmas is our peak season, and though we knew a lot about our audience, we weren’t able to access that data and target them with relevant offers,”
When Edward Scott-Finnigan joined The Gro Company three and a half years ago as its Group Ecommerce Manager, the month of a December was a revenue riddle that had yet to be solved.
“It was kind of the unwritten rule that everything shut down then, and it was always going to be the toughest month of the year for sales,” he said.
The thinking was that December was the month for The Gro Company’s biggest customers – their High Street multiples – to shine.
But Edward thought the rising tide of Christmas season sales could lift the boats of all parties, including The Gro Company’s website. December sales increased steadily soon after he arrived. Then in 2014, The Gro Company switched email service providers and signed on with Bronto.
That December, Gro decided it was time to put their marketing team – and their new marketing automation
Moda in Pelle launched in the mid-70s with a single store in Leeds. It has since grown to be a national boutique brand, with over thirty stores and concessions situated in prime retail locations across the UK. A high-fashion shoe brand that has been a favourite of British women for close to forty years, Moda in Pelle combines catwalk-inspired designs with a unique feminine approach and incorporates seductive styles with a modern edge.
Moda in Pelle selected Bronto Software as its email marketing platform in May 2012, and in only seven months, has experienced incredible growth.
Moda in Pelle had three main email marketing goals when they signed-on with Bronto: 1) To implement and move data into Bronto quickly, easily, and seamlessly; 2) To segment on their data in order to send targeted email campaigns to smaller proportions of their contacts instead of one email sent to all of their subscribers; 3) To improve efficiency and accomplish